“Kakyo”, one of the most representative Noh theories written by Zeami, a Noh performer, in the middle of the Muromachi period, is a development of his first Noh theory, “Fushikaden”, which he wrote based on the teachings of his father, Kan’ami, and it is a collection of Noh theories that he had learned and established for about 20 years since he was 40 years old. This Noh theory had been written step by step until Oei 31 (1424), and finally was handed down Kanze Motomasa, his eldest son, as a secret. Kakyo’s final chapter particularly called ‘Oku-no-dan’ (final chapter) where is stated “Don't forget your original intention” as the heart of Noh performing, is valued as the essence of Zeami's Noh theory.


The below is a part of “Kakyo”.


Kakyo(excerpt) ―English translation―
And, for Noh-dance, there is an word, Mokuzen-shingo. What it means is “Keep your eyes forward and place your mind behind”.……The performer’s figure seen from Kensho (the audience seat watching Noh) is my Riken (the objective view of the performer from the audience). Accordingly, what the performer see by his own eyes is Gaken (the subjective view of the performer on his own eyes), not Riken. The way to see on view of Riken is the view of Kensho-doshin (the way to see with the same mind as the audience in kensyo). Then, the performer grasps his own figure firmly.……But, Riken is not enough yet. Unless being conscious of his own back view, the performer cannot recognize his performance’s vulgarity. Therefore, by being based on the objective view of Riken, the performer should get to Kensho-doken (to see with the same eyes as the audience), and furthermore, by grasping even Fugyumoku (what cannot be seen with the naked eye) with his mind's eyes, his entire figure should reveal a subtle and profound world. This is exactly what is meant by “Place your mind behind”.……